Tuesday, 19 February 2013

Medical Nanorobots

      Nano robots are nano devices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting the human  body against pathogens. They will have a diameter of about 0.5 to 3 microns and will be constructed out of parts with dimensions in the range of 1 to 100 nano meters. The main element used will be carbon in the form of diamond fullerene nano composites because of the strength and chemical threatness of these forms. Many other light elements such as oxygen and nitrogen can be used for special purposes. To avoid being attacked by the host's immune system, the best choice for the exterior coating is a passive diamond coating. The smoother and more flawless the coating, the less the reaction from the body's immune system. Such devices have been designed in recent years but no working model has been built so far.

The powering of the nanorobots can be done by metabolising local glucose and oxygen for energy. In a clinical environment, another option would be externally supplied acoustic energy. Other sources of energy within the body can also be used to supply the necessary energy for the devices. They will have simple on board computers capable of performing around 1000 or fewer computations per second. This is because their computing needs are simple. Communication with the device can be achieved by broadcast-type acoustic signalling.

A navigational network may be installed in the body, with station keeping navigational elements providing high positional accuracy to all nanorobots that interrogate them, wanting to know their location. This will enable the physician to keep track of the various devices in the body. These nanorobots will be able to distinguish between different cell types by checking their surface antigens. This is accomplished by the use of chemo tactic sensors keyed to the specific antigens on the target cells. When the task of the nano robots is completed, they can be retrieved by allowing them to exfuse themselves via the usual human excretory channels. They can also be removed by active scavenger systems. This feature is design-dependent.


Some possible applications using nano robots are as follows:
1.   To cure skin diseases, a cream containing nano robots may be used. It could remove the right amount of dead skin, remove excess oils, and missing oils, apply the right amounts of natural moisturizing compounds, and even achieve the elusive goal of 'deep pore cleaning'by actually reaching down into pores and cleaning them out. The cream could be a smart material with smooth-on, peal-off convenience.
2.    A mouthwash full of smart nano machines could identify and destroy pathogenic bacteria while allowing the harmless flora of the mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem. Further, the devices would identify particles of food, plaque, or tartar, and lift them from teeth to be rinsed away. Being suspended in liquid and able to swim about, devices would be able to reach surfaces beyond reach of toothbrush bristles or the fibers of floss As short-lifetime medical nano devices  they could be built to last only a few minutes in the body before falling apart into materials of the sort found in foods (such as fiber).
3.    Medical nano devices could augment the immune system by finding and diabling unwanted bacteria        and viruses. When an invader is identified, it can be punctured, leetinh its contents spill out and ending its effectiveness. If the contents were known to be hazardous by themselves, then the immune machine could hold on to it long enough to dismantle it more completely.
4.    Devices working in the blood stream could nibble away at arteriosclerotic deposits, widening the affected blood vessels. Cell herding devices could restore artery walls and artery linings to health, by ensuring that the right cells and supporting structures are in the right places. This would prevent most heart attacks.

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